Through the scientific retrieval on Web of Science and CNKI, we search the high-impact journals and obtain 143 English documents and 191 Chinese documents. After careful reading of each literature, we propose a framework based on the participants and key features in the field of scientific and technological achievement transformation.
First, based on themes and theoretical perspectives current literature adopted, four research contents are proposed: (1) The university transformation and the underlying mechanisms. We focus on four parts: the establishment of entrepreneurial universities, the institutional arrangements of universities’ scientific and technological achievement transformation, the antecedents and forms of researchers’ engagement in technology commercialization, and the interaction between technology commercialization and science. (2) Analysis on scientific and technological achievement transformation on firm level. Specifically, we compare academic spin-offs and other firms, describing the technology productization and business model of academic spin-offs. (3) The impact of governments’ support on scientific and technological achievement transformation. (4) The transformation system of scientific and technological achievements from the perspective of “university-enterprise-government” interaction. Second, based on the existing literature, the key features of scientific and technological achievement transformation are proposed, namely, the diversity of objectives, the complexity of systems, and the extensibility of theories. The three features provide implications for future research to refine the management theory from the perspective of “conceptualization”. Furthermore, we propose context-driven suggestions for scientific and technological achievement transformation, and list four important directions: research based on emerging economic systems, Industry-University-Research collaboration research based on the bridging perspective, academic entrepreneurship research based on the demand perspective, and research based on emerging technology commercialization..
This paper constructs a context-driven framework for scientific and technological achievement transformation, which not only helps to discover the general laws of this field, but also promotes to strengthen the link between technology commercialization and management theory. It also helps to “build the academic system, theoretical system, and discourse system of China’s institutional theory”. In addition, the context-driven findings will be further fed back into practice and promote the systematic optimization of scientific and technological achievement transformation in practice.