Scott A. Shane is a professor of economics and entrepreneurial studies in Case Western Reserve University of the United States, and has published significant works that display superior conceptual acumen as well as empirical and methodological sophistication. His research covers virtually all major aspects of the entrepreneurship phenomenon: individuals, opportunity, organizational context, environment, and entrepreneurial process. Scott A. Shane has made outstanding contributions to entrepreneurial research and won the 2009 Global Entrepreneurship Research Award. In this paper, we introduce Scott A. Shane’s main academic ideas and academic contributions to Chinese entrepreneurial researchers based on English literature. The content of the paper is showed as follows. First, we introduce Scott A. Shane’s research paradigm of entrepreneurial process. Using ideas of Austrian economics school, Scott A. Shane defined the field of entrepreneurship research as the scholarly examination of how, by whom, and with what effects opportunities to create future goods and services are discovered, evaluated, and exploited. Consequently, this field involves process research of discovery, evaluation, and exploitation of opportunities. Scott A. Shane creatively proposed the entrepreneurial process research paradigm of individual-opportunity nexus for entrepreneurial opportunity discovery, evaluation and development. Second, in terms of theory foundation, Scott A. Shane laid the foundation of process research paradigm of the individual opportunity nexus on market process and divided private knowledge of Austrian school. The entrepreneur discovery theory of market process in modern Austrian school consists of three key interrelated analytical concepts: （a）the entrepreneur role; （b）the role of discovery; （c）adversarial competition. According to Hayek’s divided knowledge theory, an entrepreneur’s knowledge is individual, situational and implicit, and such rich personal knowledge means potential creativity, helping the entrepreneur discover and exploit opportunities. So based on Austrian school’s ideas, Scott A. Shane created a conceptual framework of entrepreneurial research, induced scholars to concern with three sets of research questions about entrepreneurship: （1）why, when, and how opportunities for the creation of goods and services come into existence; （2）why, when, and how some people but not others discover and exploit these opportunities; （3）why, when, and how different modes of action are used to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities. Third, Scott A. Shane is a uniquely complete entrepreneurship scholar. He has made substantial contributions to the field of entrepreneurship. They can be summarized as follows: （a）he has strongly influenced what we view as central aspects of entrepreneurship, and has been a leading figure in redirecting the focus on entrepreneurship research itself; （b）he has influenced how we view entrepreneurship phenomenon by making full arguments and presenting theoretical insights; （c）in particular, he has emphasized the need to consider variation in the opportunities alongside the characteristics of those individuals who pursue them, as well as the matching of individuals and opportunities; （d）he has contributed to how we conduct entrepreneurship research; Scott A. Shane has been a forerunner of examining relevant units of analysis that are difficult to sample, designing entrepreneurial process research, processing data, and introducing sophisticated analytical methods; （e）he has laid the theory foundation of entrepreneurship and promoted the development of entrepreneurship.
Comments on Global Entrepreneurial Research Award Winner Scott A. Shane’s Academic Thoughts and Contributions
Foreign Economics & Management Vol. 40, Issue 05, pp. 3 - 15 (2018) DOI:10.16538/j.cnki.fem.2018.05.001
1]Fang Shijian, Cheng Lei. Comments on research award of entrepreneurs and small and medium enterprises and the prospect of entrepreneurship research[J]. Foreign Economics & Management, 2006,28(1): 60-64.
2 Baron R A. The cognitive perspective: a valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic " why” questions[J]. Journal of Business Venturing, 2004, 19（2）: 221–239. DOI:10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00008-9
3 Busenitz L W, West III G P, Shepherd D, et al. Entrepreneurship research in emergence: Past trends and future directions[J]. Journal of Management, 2003, 29（3）: 285–308. DOI:10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00013-8
4 Cable D M, Shane S. A prisoner’s dilemma approach to entrepreneur-venture capitalist relationships[J]. Academy of Management Review, 1997, 22（1）: 142–176. DOI:10.5465/amr.1997.9707180262
5 Casson M. Entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm[J]. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2005, 58（2）: 327–348.
6 Dew N, Read S, Sarasvathy S D, et al. Outlines of a behavioral theory of the entrepreneurial firm[J]. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2008, 66（1）: 37–59.
7 Gartner W B. Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics[J]. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1989, 14（1）: 27–38. DOI:10.1177/104225878901400103
8 Harper D A. Foundations of entrepreneurship and economic development[M]. London, New York: Routledge, 2003.
9 Hayek F A. Individualism and economic order[M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
10 Hayek F A. The results of human action but not of human design[A]. Hayek F A. Studies in philosophy, politics and economics[M]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967.
11 Hayek F A. New studies in philosophy, politics, economics and the history of ideas[M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
12 Katila R, Shane S. When does lack of resources make new firms innovative?[J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2005, 48（5）: 814–829. DOI:10.5465/amj.2005.18803924
13 Katz J, Brockhaus R. Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth[M]. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1997: 119–138.
14 Kirzner I M. Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach[J]. Journal of Economic Literature, 1997, 35（1）: 60–85.
15 Kirzner I M. Creativity and/or alertness: A reconsideration of the Schumpeterian entrepreneur[J]. Review of Austrian Economics, 1999, 11（1–2）: 5–17.
16 Low M B, MacMillan I C. Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges[J]. Journal of Management, 1988, 14（2）: 139–161. DOI:10.1177/014920638801400202
17 Mason C. Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction[J]. International Small Business Journal, 2005, 23（2）: 211–214. DOI:10.1177/0266242605050513
18 Nicolaou N, Shane S. Can genetic factors influence the likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activity?[J]. Journal of Business Venturing, 2009, 24（1）: 1–22. DOI:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2007.11.003
19 Penrose E T. The theory of the growth of the firm[M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
20 Sarasvathy S D. Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency[J]. Academy of Management Review, 2001, 26（2）: 243–263. DOI:10.5465/amr.2001.4378020
21 Shane S. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities[J]. Organization Science, 2000, 11（4）: 448–469. DOI:10.1287/orsc.11.4.448.14602
22 Shane S. Technological opportunities and new firm creation[J]. Management Science, 2001, 47（2）: 205–220. DOI:10.1287/mnsc.126.96.36.19937
23 Shane S. A general theory of entrepreneurship: The individual-opportunity nexus[M]. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2003.
24 Shane S, Venkataraman S. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research[J]. The Academy of Management Review, 2000, 25（1）: 217–226.
25 Shane S A. Why franchise companies expand overseas[J]. Journal of Business Venturing, 1996, 11（2）: 73–88. DOI:10.1016/0883-9026(95)00110-7
26 Shane S A. Making new franchise systems work[J]. Strategic Management Journal, 1998, 19（7）: 697–707. DOI:10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0266
27 Shane S A. The illusions of entrepreneurship: The costly myths that entrepreneurs, investors, and policy makers live by[M]. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
28 Shane S A, Hoy F. Franchising: A gateway to cooperative entrepreneurship[J]. Journal of Business Venturing, 1996, 11（5）: 325–327. DOI:10.1016/0883-9026(96)00059-6
Cite this article
Fang Wenli, Fang Shijian. Comments on Global Entrepreneurial Research Award Winner Scott A. Shane’s Academic Thoughts and Contributions[J]. Foreign Economics & Management, 2018, 40(5): 3-15.
Previous: Top Management Support, Legitimation, and Effectiveness of Information Security Management