Against the background of new mixed labor trends such as “replacing humans with machines”, flexible employment, and labor of prosumer, the Shamrock Organization theory proposed by Charles Handy no longer seems to be a perfect interpretation of the new trend of employment patterns in today’s enterprises. This paper innovatively puts forward the Four-Leaf Clover Organization theory in the context of the new era for the first time, and this mixed labor force, which is composed of professional core labor force, flexible labor force, intelligent machine labor force, and prosumer labor force, has become a new form of enterprise employment. This study systematically discusses the connotation mechanism of Four-Leaf Clover Organization from the aspects of basic definition, basic elements, basic characteristics, operation mechanism and organization mechanism, and discusses its action framework from the aspects of opportunities, challenges and strategies. The core viewpoints of this study are as follows: （1） The professional core labor force is the core element and “central system” of Four-Leaf Clover Organization, and the four forms of labor force cooperate and coexist with each other to form “the community of shared future” of enterprise organization. Meanwhile, as the “amplifier” of the human labor force, the intelligent machine labor force exhibits a multiplier effect and even an exponential effect, and it has a significant empowering and expanding effect on the other three types of labor force. （2） Four-Leaf Clover Organization has basic characteristics such as human-centricity, multiple symbiosis, sensitivity and flexibility, virtual digital intelligence, flat unboundedness, and ecological connection, and it also has “4S” organizational mechanisms, such as suitable pattern mechanism, separation-by-dynamic mechanism, synergistic symbiosis mechanism and shared distributed mechanism. （3） The specific forms of Four-Leaf Clover Organization can be Internet enterprises, modern manufacturing enterprises, modern logistics enterprises and other enterprise forms, as well as public organizations such as smart government and intelligent social organizations, and they all need to meet the basic conditions such as low threshold for labor participation of prosumers and the connected media of prosumers. （4）The organizational relationship of Four-leaf Clover Organization tends to become diversified and complex, and intelligent machine will be added as a new member to both the subject and object of organization management, which will systematically transform and upgrade the organizational management system. As a result, the form, definition, scope and boundary of “employee” and “talent” will be reconstructed, and the traditional two-dimensional relationship between human and organization will be upgraded to a three-dimensional relationship of “human-robot-organization”, and traditional human resource management （i.e. HRM1.0） is evolving to a new era of human-robot management （i.e. HRM2.0）. （5） The reform of Four-Leaf Clover Organization mainly focuses on “human” and “culture” instead of digital intelligence technology, and the so-called “replacing humans with machines” is more about “changing of jobs” rather than simply “replacing humans”. In addition, the government, society, enterprises and individuals should work together to deal with the new challenges of employment pattern change in the era of Four-Leaf Clover Organization, and promote the industry 4.0 era of “replacing humans with machines” into the work 4.0 era of human-robot symbiosis. On this basis, the future research trends of Four-Leaf Clover Organization theory is put forward from the aspects of exploration and validation case study, structural adaptability, labor division, influencing factors and case experience. As a new theory of organizational labor force form in the era of digital intelligence, the Four-Leaf Clover Organization theory not only provides a more interpretive new theoretical perspective for revealing the diversified and complex transformation of organizational employment patterns, but also provides a new theoretical framework for leading the practice of digital intelligence transformation of enterprise labor force.
Four-Leaf Clover Organization: A New Type of Mixed Labor Force Organization
Foreign Economics & Management Vol. 43, Issue 02, pp. 103 - 122 (2021) DOI:10.16538/j.cnki.fem.20201028.102
Chen C H, Liu Z. Water-form organizations: A new organizational concept[J]. Foreign Economics & Management,2017,39(7):3-14.
 Chen C H, Zhao H R. Symbiosis: The evolution path of future enterprise organizations[M]. Beijing: Citic Publishing Group,2018.
 Chen C H, Zhu L. Synergy: The essence of organizational efficiency in the digital age[M]. Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 2019.
 Chen C H, Zhu L, Zhong H, et al. Practical innovation of Chinese enterprises from “digital survival” view[J]. Journal of Management Sciences in China,2019,22(10):1-8.
 Chen D M, Wang L Z, Chen A N. Digitalization and strategic management theory: Review, challenges and prospects[J]. Management World,2020,36(5):220-236+20.
 Chen Y B, Lin C, Chen X L. Artificial intelligence, aging and economic growth[J]. Economic Research Journal,2019,54(7):47-63.
 Cheng B Q. A sociological exploration of the contemporary emotional system[J]. Social Sciences in China,2017(5):83-101+207.
 Cheng C P, Peng H. The mechanism of artificial intelligence affecting employment and China's countermeasures[J]. China Soft Science,2018(10):62-70.
 Feng X L, Zhang J G, Zhan J, et al. Flexible employment: From "talent is owned by me" to "talent is used by me"[M]. Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 2018.
 Gao S X, Liu J H. The impact of artificial intelligence on enterprise management theory and its countermeasures[J]. Studies in Science of Science,2018,36(11):2004-2010.
 Han W L, Liu L. The four forms of digital labor process and value creation[J]. Finance & Economics,2020(1):67-79.
 He J, Yan S M, Guan J. What exactly is the shared employee? Origin, connotation, framework and trend[J]. Commercial Research,2020(6):1-13.
 Jia G L. The third industrial revolution and industrial intellectualization[J]. Social Sciences in China,2016(6):87-106+206.
 Li H J, Chen X Y. Study on the boundaryless development of firm——based on case analysis[J]. China Industrial Economics,2011(6):89-98.
 Liu Y Z, Sun J S, Jiang Y C, et al. 4C model: Value discovery in big data[J]. Management World,2020,36(2):129-138.
 Qi Y D, Xiao X. Transformation of enterprise management in the era of digital economy[J]. Management World,2020,36(6):135-152+250.
 Qiu H P, Zhao M. A review on the theory of audience labor[J]. Economic Perspectives,2017(4):101-110.
 Wang F, Guo L. Regulation of systems in man-machine integration society[J]. Systems Engineering-Theory & Practice,2020,40(8):1935-1944.
 Wang Y, Qiu G D. Research on multiple intelligence organizations based on “four anti” transformation under the background of the new industrial revolution[J]. Business Management Journal,2020,42(2):92-105.
 Xu P, Xu X Y. Change logic and analysis framework of enterprise management in the era of artificial intelligence[J]. Management World,2020,36(1):122-129.
 Zheng J W, Zhang Z Z. Comment on western scholars' research on digital labor[J]. Economist,2019(12):100-108.
 Bodrožić Z, Adler P S. The evolution of management models: A Neo-Schumpeterian theory[J]. Administrative Science Quarterly,2018, 63(1): 85-129.
 Colbert A, Yee N, George G. The digital workforce and the workplace of the future[J]. Academy of Management Journal,2016, 59(3): 731-739.
 Crandall J W, Oudah M, Tennom, et al. Cooperating with machines[J]. Nature Communications,2018, 9: 233.
 Curchod C, Patriotta G, Cohen L, et al. Working for an algorithm: Power asymmetries and agency in online work settings[J]. Administrative Science Quarterly,2020, 65(3): 644-676.
 De Stefano F, Bonet R, Camuffo A. Does losing temporary workers matter? The effects of planned turnover on replacements and unit performance[J]. Academy of Management Journal,2019, 62(4): 979-1002.
 Fieseler C, Bucher E, Hoffmann C P. Unfairness by design? The perceived fairness of digital labor on crowdworking platforms[J]. Journal of Business Ethics,2019, 156(4): 987-1005.
 Fountaine T, McCarthy B, Saleh T. Building the AI-powered organization: Technology isn’t the biggest challenge: Culture is[J]. Harvard Business Review,2019, 97(4): 62-73.
 Frick W. When your boss wears metal pants[J]. Harvard Business Review,2015, 93(6): 84-89.
 Gaines B R. From facilitating interactivity to managing hyperconnectivity: 50 years of human-computer studies[J]. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,2019, 131: 4-22.
 Gandini A. Labour process theory and the gig economy[J]. Human Relations,2019, 72(6): 1039-1056.
 Glikson E, Woolley A W. Human trust in artificial intelligence: Review of empirical research[J]. Academy of Management Annals,2020, 14(2): 627-660.
 Goldfarb A, Tucker C. Digital economics[J]. Journal of Economic Literature,2019, 57(1): 3-43.
 Handy C. The age of unreason[M]. London: Century Hutchinson, 1989.
 Inanc H. Unemployment, temporary work, and subjective well-being: The gendered effect of spousal labor market insecurity[J]. American Sociological Review,2018, 83(3): 536-566.
 Mende M, Scott M L, van Doorn J, et al. Service robots rising: How humanoid robots influence service experiences and elicit compensatory consumer responses[J]. Journal of Marketing Research,2019, 56(4): 535-556.
 Puranam P, Alexy O, Reitzig M. What’s “new” about new forms of organizing?[J]. Academy of Management Review,2014, 39(2): 162-180.
 Rahwan I, Cebrian M, Obradovich N, et al. Machine behaviour[J]. Nature,2019, 568(7753): 477-486.
 Rubery J, Keizer A, Grimshaw D. Flexibility bites back: The multiple and hidden costs of flexible employment policies[J]. Human Resource Management Journal,2016, 26(3): 235-251.
 Siggelkow N, Terwiesch C. The age of continuous connection new technologies have made 24/7 customer relationships possible. It’s time to change your business model accordingly[J]. Harvard Business Review,2019, 97(3): 63-73.
 Sutherland M E. Human-computer teams are best[J]. Nature Human Behaviour,2018, 2(7): 444.
 Toffler A. The third wave[M]. New York: Bantam Books, 1980.
 Wood A J, Graham M, Lehdonvirta V, et al. Good gig, bad gig: Autonomy and algorithmic control in the global gig economy[J]. Work, Employment and Society,2019, 33(1): 56-75.
Cite this article
He Jiang, Yan Shumin, Guan Jiao. Four-Leaf Clover Organization: A New Type of Mixed Labor Force Organization[J]. Foreign Economics & Management, 2021, 43(2): 103-122.