Based on the data of the 2008 Chinese General Social Survey（CGSS 2008）, which includes the indicators of school-age effort, this paper uses Gini coefficient to measure the degree of inequality in the quantity and quality of higher education in China under the framework of opportunity inequality analysis, and uses Shapley decomposition to study the factors of circumstances and efforts on the access to higher education of Chinese residents. The relative contribution of quantity and quality and its long-term trend are tested by the structural equation model and the method of increasing or decreasing variables. The research finds that: Firstly, compared with effort factors, circumstance factors contribute more to the quantity and quality of higher education, which shows that there are still some unequal opportunities for higher education in China. Secondly, effort factors play a greater role in the quality of higher education acquisition than in the quantity of higher education acquisition. Thirdly, among circumstance factors, the family cultural factor, the family economic factor and the location factor play an obvious role in the quantity and quality of higher education, among which the family cultural factor has the greatest impact, and plays a greater role in the quality of higher education. From the perspective of location, the groups in the central region are at a disadvantage in the competition of higher education opportunities. Fourthly, through the comparative analysis of different age groups, it is found that the national unified examination system is more conducive to the realization of higher education equity than the recommendation system, while the welfare of university enrollment expansion policy is not fairly distributed among different groups.
Circumstances or Efforts? A Study on the Inequality of Quantity and Quality in the Access to Higher Education in China
Journal of Finance and Economics Vol. 45, Issue 12, pp. 59 - 72 (2019) DOI:10.16538/j.cnki.jfe.2019.12.005
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Cite this article
Jin Zhenzhong, Yan Binjian, Wang Liang. Circumstances or Efforts? A Study on the Inequality of Quantity and Quality in the Access to Higher Education in China[J]. Journal of Finance and Economics, 2019, 45(12): 59-72.