Under the new situation, the construction of a unified national market has put forward new requirements for the further optimization of the government-market relationship, which not only affects the advantages of China’s mega-market, but also has a bearing on the accelerated formation of a new development pattern. The study shows that, after more than 40 years of practice and exploration, the construction of a unified national market has gone through several stages of development, providing a basic framework for the advantages of a mega-market to be brought into play, but the current market system still needs to be improved because the government-market relationship has not yet been rationalized, which is mainly manifested in that: The government role in the development of the market has been “overstepped” “misplaced” and “missing”, and is difficult to adapt to the needs of the development of China’s market system; the government still has a strong right to allocate resources, and has an inherent urge to intervene directly in market activities, which in turn weakens the main position of the market in determining the allocation of resources with a distorting effect on the construction of a unified national market. The key to building a unified national market is to re-optimize the relationship between the government and the market, making the way of combining the government and the market better meet the specific requirements of the construction of a unified national market, and making adaptive adjustments to government functions, especially to shift government functions to the construction of unified rules; the distortion of the relationship between the government and the market has a complex impact on the “unity” of the national market, which will restrict the expansion of market scale, and the strip-block management system will also restrict the construction of a unified national market.
In terms of implementation principles, the key to correcting the problem of “overstepping” is to limit the scope of government role to expand the scope of market role; to overcoming the problem of “misplacing” is to accelerate the transformation to a service-oriented government; to cracking the problem of “missing” is to strengthen the government role in the provision of institutional infrastructure, social security and market regulation. In order to meet the requirements of constructing a unified national market, the government-market relationship can be further optimized in terms of fully devolving power to the market while limiting the scope of government role, playing a good complementary role of the government to the market, exploring the best mode of combining the strip-block structure, and enhancing the government role in social security and public services.